Volume 5, Issue 4, December 2019, Page: 59-63
Anxiety and Emotional Distress in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Patients (A Case-Control Study) in Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt
Nora Nabil Hussien, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Aya Ahmed El Masry, Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine-Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Moustafa Mohammed Zaitoun, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine-Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Eman Roshdy Alsafi, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine-Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Received: Oct. 29, 2019;       Accepted: Nov. 19, 2019;       Published: Nov. 25, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20190504.14      View  570      Downloads  120
Abstract
Nausea and vomiting are common experiences in pregnancy and it is considered as a part of normal physiology. It affects about 75% of pregnant women without a known cause. In most cases, it is a mild and self-limited condition that can be controlled with conservative measures and has no adverse fetal outcomes. Women with severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) may have hyperemesis gravidarum (HG); an entity distinct from NVP, which if left untreated may lead to significant maternal and fetal morbidity. The objective of this study was to assess the presence and severity of anxiety in pregnant women with and without HG. The study is a case-control study on 52 pregnant women divided into two groups: cases hospitalized with the diagnosis of HG and healthy pregnant women as a control group. All mothers in the study were evaluated by Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). It was revealed that most of hyperemesis gravidarum cases suffered from severe anxiety while only (7.7%) of healthy control had severe anxiety, with high statistical significant difference. The mean of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) is statistically higher among hyperemesis gravidarum cases than healthy controls. Regarding General Health Questionnaire - 28 subscales; the mean score of somatic symptoms, social dysfunction and severe depression is statistically higher among hyperemesis gravidarum cases than healthy controls. It was concluded that anxiety and emotional distress were more common and severe in patients with HG.
Keywords
Hyperemesis Gravidarum‚ Anxiety, Emotional Distress
To cite this article
Nora Nabil Hussien, Aya Ahmed El Masry, Moustafa Mohammed Zaitoun, Eman Roshdy Alsafi, Anxiety and Emotional Distress in Hyperemesis Gravidarum Patients (A Case-Control Study) in Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, Journal of Family Medicine and Health Care. Vol. 5, No. 4, 2019, pp. 59-63. doi: 10.11648/j.jfmhc.20190504.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
London V, Grube S, Sherer D and Abulafia O. Hyperemesis Gravidarum: A Review of recent literature. Pharmacology. 2017; 100 (3-4): 161-171. doi: 10.1159/000477853.
[2]
AAFP. Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2014; 15. 89 (12): 965-970. https://www.aafp.org/afp/2014/0615/p965.html.
[3]
Nurmi M, Rautava P, Gissler M, Vahlberg T and Polo-Kantola P. Recurrence patterns of hyperemesis gravidarum. Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 2018; 219: 5 (469. e1–469. e10).
[4]
Yeh C, Tsui K and Wang P. Hyperemesis gravidarum. J Chin Med Assoc. 2018; 81 (9): 755-756. doi: 10.1016/j.jcma.2017.09.001.
[5]
Sykes C, Swallow B, Gadsby R, Barnie-Adshead A, Dean C, Moran E, et al. Seeking medical help for Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy (NVP) and Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) in primary care. MIDIRS. 2013; 9: 13–15.
[6]
Dean C and Marsden J. Women’s experiences of treatment for hyperemesis gravidarum in day case settings compared to hospital admissions. MIDIRS Midwifery Digest. 2017; 27 (2); 177–86.
[7]
Mitchell-Jones N, Gallos I, Farren J, Tobias A, Bottomley C and Bourne T. Psychological morbidity associated with hyperemesis gravidarum; a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2017; 124 (1): 20-30. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.14180.
[8]
Kjeldgaard H, Eberhard-Gran M, Benth J and Vikanes A. Hyperemesis gravidarum and the risk of emotional distress during and after pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2017; 20 (6): 747–756. doi: 10.1007/s00737-017-0770-5.
[9]
Balık G, Tekin Y and Kağıtcı M. Is there relationship between social support, psychological distress, mood disorders and hyperemesis gravidarum?. Journal of Obstetrics Gynaecology. 2015; 35 (7): 737–40.
[10]
Groleau D, Benady-Chorney J, Panaitoiu A and Jimenez V. Hyperemesis Gravidarum in the context of migration: when the absence of cultural meaning gives rise to “blaming the victim”. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019; 19, 197. doi: 10.1186/s12884-019-2344-1
[11]
Kender E, Yukse G, Ger C and Ozer U. Eating attitudes, depression and anxiety levels of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum hospitalized in an obstetrics and gynecology clinic. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences. 2015; 28 (119-126). doi: 10.5350/DAJPN2015280204.
[12]
Hamilton M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating. Br J Med Psychol 1959; (32): 50–55. https://dcf.psychiatry.ufl.edu/files/2011/05/Hamilton-Anxiety.pdf.
[13]
Goldberg D. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. NFER-Nelson, Windsor (1978).
[14]
Robinson R and Price T. Post-Stroke depressive disorders: A follow-up study of 103 patients of stroke. Stroke. 1982; 13 (5): 635-41.
[15]
Failde I, Ramos I and Fernandez-Palacín F. Comparison between the GHQ-28 and SF-36 (MH 1-5) for the assessment of the mental health in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Eur J Epidemiol. 2000; 16 (4): 311-6.
[16]
Senturk M, Turan K, Cakmak Y and Budak M. Hyperemesis gravidarum, socio-cultural factors and maternal short psychiatric status. Medical Science and Discovery. 2015; 2 (6): 323-7. doi: 10.17546/msd.59756.
[17]
Annagür B, Kerimoğlu Ö, Gündüz Ş and Tazegül A. Are there any differences in psychiatric symptoms and eating attitudes between pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and healthy pregnant women?: J. Obstet. Gynaecol.2014 ;40 (4): 1009–1014 doi: 10.1111/jog.12274.
[18]
Şimşek Y, Çelik Ö, Yılmaz E, Karaer A, Yıldırım E and Yoloğlu S. Assessment of anxiety and depression levels of pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum in a case-control study. Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association. 2012; 13 (1): 32-36. doi: 10.5152/jtgga.2012.01.
[19]
Kender E, Yuksel G, Ger C and Ozer U. Eating attitudes, depression and anxiety levels of patients with hyperemesis gravidarum hospitalized in an obstetrics and gynecology clinic. The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences.2015; 28 (2): (119–126). doi: 10.5350/DAJPN2015280204.
[20]
Ezberci I, Güven E, Ustüner I, Sahin F and Hocaoğlu C. Disability and psychiatric symptoms in hyperemesis gravidarum patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014; 289 (1): 55-60. doi: 10.1007/s00404-013-2934-5.
[21]
Beyazit F and Sahin B. Effect of nausea and vomiting on anxiety and depression levels in early pregnancy. Eurasian J Med. 2018; 50 (2): (111-115). doi: 10.5152/eurasianjmed.2018.170320.
[22]
Topalahmetoğlu Y, Altay M, Cırık D, Tohma Y, Çolak E and Çoşkun B. et al. Depression and anxiety disorder in hyperemesis gravidarum: A prospective case-control study. Turkish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017; 14 (4): (214–219). http://doi.org/10.4274/tjod.78477.
[23]
Pirimoglu Z, Guzelmeric K, Alpay B, Balcik O, Unal O and Turan M. Psychological factors of hyperemesis gravidarum by using the SCL-90-R questionnaire. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2010; (37): 56–59.
Browse journals by subject